ImpactDose - CT dose estimation made easy



With ImpactDose, you get instant estimates with respect to organ and effective dose values for typical clinical CT scanner models and scan protocols. The computation is done based on tables pre-computed with our world-renowned ImpactMC software for different scanners and selected anthropomorphic phantoms. For a chosen scan protocol and range, the software displays an overview of the expected dose values - all that at the glimpse of an eye.

Both a generic CT scanner, modeled according to the technology implemented and used in modern medical imaging nowadays, and a clinical scanner can be chosen for the estimation. A CTDI (Computed Tomography Dose Index) can be defined that allows better approximation to the real examinations. A family of mathematically defined anthropomorphic phantoms represented by 12 phantoms of both genders and different ages (newborn, 1, 5, 10, 15 years old and adult) is provided as well as two voxelized human phantoms. In addition, each phantom is available in 2 different BMI versions (M, L) to better estimate dose values for obese patients. ImpactDose can use information such as age, height and diameter for an interpolation between the different phantoms offering better estimation for an individual patient. ImpactDose is only allowed for educational and training purposes and not approved for making medical decisions.

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• 12 standardized anthropomorphic phantoms (ORNL)
• 2 standardized voxelized human phantoms (ICRP)
• Supports tissue weighting factors of ICRP 26, 60 and 103
• Support for TCM/AEC dose reduction techniques
• Dose estimations for a generic clinical CT system
• Dose estimations for a Siemens Definition Flash* scanner
• Dose estimations for a Siemens Somatom Force* scanner
• Estimation of dose levels for pediatric CT examinations
• Estimation of dose levels for obese patients
• Advanced interpolation methods for improved individual dose estimation
• Supports generation of detailed dose reports


* registered trademark of Siemens AG


• Easy to use graphical user interface
• English, German, Japanese and simplified Chinese language
• Available for Mac OS, Windows XP, Vista, 7, 8, 8.1 and 10
• Native 32 bit and 64 bit versions
• Not a medical product


Young Adult
Young AdultDose estimation for thorax scan of a 16 year old male patient.
Young Adult
Child 1 Year
Voxelized ICRP Phantoms
One-sided Report
Two-sided Report

ImpactDose provides instant approximate information with respect to organ and effective dose values for individual patients on a modern clinical CT system and allows to create a detailed report.


An overall of 24 mathematically defined anthropomorphic phantoms of both genders, different ages (newborn, 1, 5, 10, 15 years old and adults) and three different BMI versions (M, L) were simulated using our Monte Carlo dose simulation software  ImpactMC. These results form for the data basis for the dose estimation.

Individuel dose values

An advanced interpolation allows for patient specific organ and effective dose values using individual information from the patient like age, height and diameter.


ImpactDose has been one of the leading products for estimation of dose values over the past years. In more than 15 international publications, ImpactDose has been employed to estimate dose and risk; and the trend is going up. At the renowned Institute of Medical Physics in Erlangen, Germany (under the leadership of Prof. Willi A. Kalender), one dissertation on the development and validation of ImpactDose has already been written, a second thesis regarding the new version 2 is currently in work.

Last revised: 2015-09-04

References regarding the development and validation of ImpactDose

  1. W. A. Kalender, B. Schmidt, M. Zankl, M. Schmidt. A PC program for estimating organ dose and effective dose values in computed tomography. European Radiology, 9, 555-562 (1999)

References that use ImpactDose for dose evaluation

  1. N. Saltybaeva. Radiation dose calculation and optimization in computed tomography. PhD. Thesis, Institute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg (2015)
  2. N. Saltybaeva, M. E. Jafari, M. Hupfer, W. A. Kalender. Estimates of Effective Dose for CT Scans of the Lower Extremities. Radiology, in press (2014)
  3. L. Xiao, Z. Yongming, P. Shengkum, Y. Renquang, W. Jie, S. Jingkun. Application of Monte Carlo software in estimating patients' radiation dose during CCTA and confirmation by anthropomorphic phantom study. Chinese Journal of Radiological Medicine and Protection, 34(2), (2014)
  4. W. A. Kalender. Dose in x-ray computed tomography. Phys. Med. Biol., 59, R129-R150 (2014)
  5. O. Museyko, A. Heinemann, M. Krause, B. Wulff, M. Amling, K. Püschel, C. C. Glüer, W. A. Kalender, K. Engelke. A low-radiation exposure protocol for 3D QCT of the spine. Osteoporosis International, Osteoporos. Int., 25, 983-992 (2014)
  6. G. Stamm. Software for Calculating Dose and Risk. In D. Tack, M. K. Kalra and P. A. Gevenois (ed.) Radiation Dose from Multidetector CT, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 563-568 (2012)
  7. M. S. May, P. Deak, A. Kuettner, M. M. Lell, W. Wuest, M. Scharf, A. K. Keller, L. Häberle, S. Achenbach, M. Seltmann, M. Uder, W. A. Kalender. Radiation dose considerations by intra-individual Monte Carlo simulations in dual source spiral coronary computed tomography angiography with electrocardiogram-triggered tube current modulation and adaptive pitch. Eur. Radiol., 22, 569-578 (2012)
  8. K. P. Kim, J. Lee, W. E. Bolch. CT dosimetry computer codes: their influence on radiation dose estimates and the necessity for their revision under new ICRP radiation protection standards. Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 146, 252-255 (2011)
  9. W. A. Kalender. Computed Tomography. Fundamentals, System Technology, Image Quality, Applications. 3rd revised edition, Publicis, Erlangen, Germany (2011)
  10. J. J. Hamill, B. Bai, R. L. Eisner, M. Ichise, J. A. Nye. Attenuation Map Segmentation in Low-Dose PET/CT. IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record 2010, 2941-2947 (2010)
  11. T. G. Gleeson, J. Moriarty, C. P. Shortt, J. P. Gleeson, P. Fitzpatrick, B. Byrne, J. McHugh, M. O’Connell, P. O’Gorman, S. J. Eustace. Accuracy of whole-body low-dose multidetector CT (WBLDCT) versus skeletal survey in the detection of myelomatous lesions, and correlation of disease distribution with whole-body MRI (WBMRI). Skeletal Radiol., 38, 225-236 (2009)
  12. S. Achenbach, K. Anders, W. A. Kalender. Dual-source cardiac computed tomography: image quality and dose considerations. Eur. Radiol., 18, 1188-1198 (2008)
  13. A. J. Einstein, J. Sanz, S. Dellegrottaglie, M. Milite, M. Sirol, M. Henzlova, S. Rajagopalan. Radiation dose and cancer risk estimates in 16-slice computed tomography coronary angiography. Journal of Nuclear Cardiology, 15, 232-240 (2008)
  14. W. Huda, K. M. Ogden, M. R. Khorasani. Converting Dose-Length Product to Effective Dose at CT. Radiology, 248, 995-1003 (2008)
  15. A. J. Einstein, M. J. Henzlova, S. Rajagopalan. Estimating Risk of Cancer Associated With Radiation Exposure From 64-Slice Computed Tomography Coronary Angiography. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 298, 317-323 (2007)
  16. A. J. Einstein, K. W. Moser, R. C. Thompson, M. D. Cerqueira, M. J. Henzlova. Radiation Dose to Patients From Cardiac Diagnostic Imaging. Circulation, 116, 1290-1305 (2007)
  17. C. Hohl, G. Mühlenbruch, J. E. Wildberger, C. Leidecker, C. Süß, T. Schmidt, R. W. Günther, A. H. Mahnken. Estimation of radiation exposure in low-dose multislice computed tomography of the heart and comparison with a calculation program. Eur. Radiol., 16, 1841-1846 (2006)
  18. D. Ropers, F.-K. Pohle, A. Kuettner, T. Pflederer, K. Anders, W. G. Daniel, W. Bautz, U. Baum, S. Achenbach. Diagnostic Accuracy of Noninvasive Coronary Angiographyin Patients After Bypass Surgery Using 64-Slice Spiral Computed Tomography With 330-ms Gantry Rotation. Circulation, 114, 2334-2341 (2006)
  19. D. Ropers, J. Rixe, K. Anders, A. Küttner, U. Baum, W. Bautz, W. G. Daniel, S. Achenbach. Usefulness of Multidetector Row Spiral Computed Tomography With 64- x 0.6-mm Collimation and 330-ms Rotation for the Noninvasive Detection of Significant Coronary Artery Stenoses. The Americal Journal of Cardiology, 97, 343-348 (2006)
  20. M. Das, G. Mühlenbruch, A. H. Mahnken, C. Weiß, U. J. Schoepf, C. Leidecker, R. W. Günther, J. E. Wildberger. Optimized image reconstruction for detection of deep venous thrombosis at multidetector-row CT venography. Eur. Radiol., 16, 269-275 (2006)
  21. C. Leidecker, M. Kachelriess, W. A. Kalender. A Dose Tutor to help optimize clinical scan protocols. European Radiology, Suppl. 1(14):274 (2004).

References that cite ImpactDose

  1. C. M. Thompson. The Utility of Patient-Specific CT Dose Estimation Maps. PhD. Thesis, Department Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Cleveland State University (2015)!etd.send_file?accession=csu1440534502&disposition=attachment
  2. S. D. Kordolaimi, E. P. Efstathopoulos. Computed Tomography Radiation Dosimetry: From the Indicators to the Indications. J. Comput. Assist. Tomogr., in press (2014)
  3. W. A. Kalender. Dose in x-ray computed tomography. Phys. Med. Biol., 59, R129 (2014)

Scientific presentations that use ImpactDose

  1. M. Hupfer, N. Saltybaeva, D. Kolditz, B. Schmidt, W. A. Kalender. Fast and Easy Estimates of Dose from Localizer Radiographs in Clinical CT Based on Pre-Calculated Monte Carlo Tables. Annual Meeting of Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) 2014, 30 November- 5 December 2014, Chicago, USA (2014)
  2. N. Saltybaeva, M. E. Jafari, M. Hupfer, W. A. Kalender. Estimates of Effective Dose for CT Scans of the Lower Extremities. Annual Meeting of Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) 2014, 30 November – 05 December 2014, Chicago, USA (2014)
  3. M. Nishikimi, T. Arai, M. Arai, M. Shinozaki, K. Sakamoto, Y. Tanishima. Study on Optimization of Evaluation of Abdominal CT Exposure Dose Using CT Dose Simulation Software (ImpactDose). 68th Annual Meeting of Japanese Society of National Medical Services, 14 - 15 November 2014, Yokohama, Japan (2014)
  4. N. Saltybaeva, M. Hupfer, D. Kolditz, B. Schmidt, W. A. Kalender. Fast and easy dose es-timates including tube current modulation and automatic exposure control. Annual Meeting of Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) 2013, 01 - 06 December 2013, Chicago, USA (2013)
  5. W. A. Kalender. CTDI and patient dose: a European perspective. 54th Annu. Meeting of the AAPM, Med. Phys.39, 3906

Version History

ImpactDose is continuously improved and adapted to the needs of our customers. The version history transparently shows all improvements and extensions in a new version. If you experience problems, please report them via email to This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.. If the problem is caused by a software bug, we will try to fix this in the next version of ImpactDose. Of course, suggestions are also always welcome.

2.3 (published 2016/03/02)

  • FEATURE: added Siemens Somatom Force as a 2nd example scanner
  • FEATURE: added Japanese localization including user manual (by ToyoMedic Co.)
  • FEATURE: added simplified Chinese localization
  • FEATURE: accuracy of localizer dose tables was improved for some organs
  • MANUAL: adapted Siemens Somatom Force to the available example scanners

2.2 (published 2015/02/12)

  • FEATURE: dose estimations for localizer/tomopgram scans are now possible
  • FEATURE: added voltages 90, 110, 130 and 150 kV for user-specified scanner
  • FEATURE: dose values are now shown in addition to organ names in the phantom view
  • FEATURE: introduced version for Mac OS X 10.6 and above
  • FEATURE: added recently opened configuration files to the file menu
  • FEATURE: added German translation (except manual)
  • BUGFIX: minor differences between the graphically shown and the textual scan range
  • MANUAL: included new functionalities and minor improvements

2.1.2 (published 2014/03/13)

  • FEATURE: re-enabled output of SSDE values

2.1.1 (published 2014/03/07)

  • BUGFIX: pitch and increment are no longer reset if collimation fields are touched

2.1 (published 2014/01/31)

  • FEATURE: added support for tube current modulation (TCM) and automatic exposure control (AEC)
  • FEATURE: support for larger number of detector lines and larger collimations
  • FEATURE: improved calculation methods for spiral scans
  • FEATURE: added ICRP male and ICRP female phantom
  • FEATURE: patient orientation is now selectable from AP or PA orientation
  • FEATURE: allow selection of table increments larger than the collimation in sequential mode
  • FEATURE: revised parameter input fields in graphical user interface (GUI)
  • FEATURE: allow to copy the result table via copy/paste to Microsoft Excel
  • FEATURE: added 140 kV + Sn filter to Definition Flash (sometimes used in dual energy mode)
  • FEATURE: improved widget layouting on widescreen displays
  • FEATURE: renamed "generic" scanner to "user-specified" scanner
  • FEATURE: user-specified scanner now supports body, cardiac, head and pediatric protocols
  • BUGFIX: date and time in report are no longer using German format
  • BUGFIX: no longer resets parameters to defaults if e.g. another phantom is selected

2.0 (published 2013/03/21)

  • FEATURE: complete redesign of the GUI
  • FEATURE: allows estimation of dose levels for pediatric patients
  • FEATURE: allows estimation of doses levels for obese patients
  • FEATURE: interpolation mode allows improved individual dose estimates
  • FEATURE: replaced outdated CT scanners with a generic model and a Siemens Definition Flash
  • FEATURE: added support for ICRP 103 dose values
  • MANUAL: completely revised and adapted manual

1.16.1 (published 2005/07/02)

  • FEATURE: implemented new Siemens Sensation 64 tables
  • FEATURE: implemented manually resolution settings in cfg-file
  • FEATURE: implemented "syngo look" setting in cfg-file

1.16.0 (published 2004/11/24)

  • FEATURE: implemented 3 new Siemens scanners: Sensation 10, Sensation 64, Emotion 6
  • FEATURE: extended licensing procedure for drag-and-drop and raw files in demo mode
  • BUGFIX: implemented 3 last change requests. Corrected strings
  • BUGFIX: corrected the problem with double click on select dose file
  • BUGFIX: corrected error messages life time

1.15.4 (published 2004/11/10)

  • FEATURE: accelerated application start with extended dongle check in backend
  • FEATURE: automatically switching in demo mode if the dongle isn't (longer) valid
  • FEATURE: intelligent dongle setup procedure integrated in installation program
  • FEATURE: reboot the computer on demand after installation
  • FEATURE: optimized compiler settings for best application speed

1.15.3 (published 2004/10/29)

  • FEATURE: initial release


Trial & Further Questions

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